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Optometric Education

The Journal of the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry

Feature Archives

Progressive Supranuclear Palsy:
a Teaching Case Report

Background Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a neurodegenerative disorder with distinct clinical features including vertical supranuclear gaze palsy, frontal lobe cognitive decline, postural instability and progressive axial rigidity. First described in 1964 by Steele et al., PSP had been referred to historically as Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome. They reported nine cases with the aforementioned findings, which veered […]
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When a Red Eye is More than Meets the Eye:
a Teaching Case Report on the Public Health Role
of the Eyecare Provider

Background Patients presenting for care of “red eye” can be challenging due to the numerous etiologies and potential systemic associations. A systematic evaluation of presenting signs and symptoms with development of an inclusive differential diagnosis is required, but is complicated when unknown concurrent systemic infection is present. Collaboration with the patient’s primary care physician (PCP) […]
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MEWDS: a Teaching Case Report

Background This case involves a 22-year-old Caucasian female diagnosed with multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS). MEWDS is part of a group of inflammatory disorders known as white dot syndromes, which affect the retina, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and choroid.1 Often, symptoms of MEWDS are unilateral, have sudden onset, and include blurred vision, central or […]
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Is Educational Theory of Use in Optometric Education?

Introduction Healthcare education is carried out primarily by instructors repeating the way in which they were taught.1-7 There is a sense that teaching is an art where only content knowledge and natural talent are needed to excel.3 New trends, such as the “flipped classroom,” may be applied without an understanding of the principles behind the […]
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An Inquiry-Based Approach
to Teaching Sphero-Cylindrical Ametropia

Background A clear understanding of the optics of the eye remains a fundamental basis of optometric education.1-7 As technology continues to improve, modern instrumentation and corrections can utilize measurements that are more sophisticated and manufacturing standards that are more precise. Optometrists need a clear understanding of the optical basis of sphero-cylindrical ametropia and the relationship […]
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Assessment of Competency Following Use
of Eyesi Indirect Ophthalmoscope Simulators
Within a First-Year Optometric Curriculum

Background Healthcare education has historically operated under the adage of, “See one, Do one, Teach one,” a phrase coined after Halsted’s depiction of early surgical residency training.1 In reality, Duvivier et al. found that medical students require repetitive practice to reach competency.2 For optometry students, competent operation of the binocular indirect ophthalmoscope is a skill […]
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Management of Acute Corneal Hydrops in a Patient
with Keratoconus: a Teaching Case Report

Background Keratoconus is typically thought to be a bilateral disease that can present asymmetrically. It is associated with progressive corneal ectasia and scarring. With no definitive etiology, the corneal ectasia ultimately leads to irregular astigmatism, central anterior scarring and reduced vision.1 Hydrops is a rare condition experienced by some keratoconic patients. Hydrops is characterized as […]
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Blebitis: a Teaching Case Report

Background The following case report explores the presentation, diagnosis and treatment of a bleb-related infection. The case may benefit third- and fourth-year optometry students as well as optometry residents in managing a complex eye condition in the setting of multiple ocular and systemic comorbidities. Understanding the management of blebitis and bleb-related infections is important for […]
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Application of an Online Homework Tool in Optometry for Geometric Optics Improves Exam Performance

Background Online homework has been replacing traditional paper-based homework in many fields, including chemistry, statistics, physics, accounting and mathematics; however, its impact on exam performance is ambiguous. While improvements have been observed in many studies,1-24 other studies show little or no improvement.25-32 Regardless, students and faculty have shown a strong preference for online homework systems.1-32 […]
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Lymphoproliferative Disorders of the Ocular Adnexa: a Teaching Case Report of Conjunctival MALT Lymphoma and Lymphoid Hyperplasia

Background Ocular adnexal lymphoproliferative disorders (OALD) range from the benign reactive lymphoid hyperplasias (RLHs) to the malignant lymphomas. Both benign and malignant ocular lymphoproliferative disorders typically affect the conjunctiva, orbit and lacrimal gland and are most often unilateral.1-5 OALD has a slight female predilection and typically presents between the 5th and 7th decades.4,6 Malignant lymphomas […]
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Optic Nerve Melanoctyoma: a Teaching Case Report

Background Optic nerve head melanocytoma (ONM) typically appears as black or dark-brown tumors with feathery or “fuzzy” margins located on the optic disc that often extend into the adjacent retina, choroid and vitreous.1 ONM was first reported in 1907 by Coats, who suspected melanocytomas were benign tumors. In 1962 Zimmerman and Garron described the histopathological […]
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Development of a Polymeric Eye Model
for Foreign Body Removal

Introduction Corneal foreign bodies, such as particulates of metal, glass, wood, plastic or sand, are among the most common causes of ocular injury.1-3 When left untreated, they can potentially lead to tissue death, infections and vision loss.1,2 Unfortunately, physicians are often poorly trained in the removal of corneal foreign bodies, which may lead to delayed […]
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Student Performance and Attitudes During the Transition from Paper to Computer-Based Examinations

Background Standardized assessments used for professional licensure and to measure pre-professional aptitude have been administered electronically for decades. Computer-based test (CBT) platforms have also been introduced in many undergraduate and professional programs, and their use has coincided with the emergence of cognitive learning theories that stress integration of classroom teaching and assessment.1 Most health profession […]
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Does Practice Make Perfect? Relating Student Performance to Training Hours

Background We have all heard the phrase “practice makes perfect.” The Latin proverb “usus est magister optimus” translates to “practice is the best master,” and Aristotle said, “For the things we have to learn before we can do them, we learn by doing them.”1 Emphasis on the importance of practice is seen clearly in every […]
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Optic Neuritis Associated with Multiple Sclerosis:
a Teaching Case Report

Background Optic neuritis is an acute inflammatory demyelinating injury to the optic nerve. Optic neuritis is the presenting feature in up to 20% of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and occurs in up to 50% of MS patients at some point during their lifetime. The two most common symptoms of acute optic neuritis are vision loss […]
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Conjunctival Lymphoma: a Teaching Case Report

Background This teaching case report describes the diagnosis and care of an otherwise healthy 24-year-old Asian male with conjunctival lymphoma. The case report is appropriate as a teaching guide for optometry students at all levels. It provides a thorough review of conjunctival anatomy and physiology along with explanations of key findings, common clinical presentations, differential […]
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Interactive Multimedia Learning vs. Traditional Learning in Optometry: a Randomized Trial, B-scan Example

Introduction With the advancement of technology and increased use of electronic devices, interactive multimedia learning has been a point of interest in medical education.1,2 Interactive multimedia learning is defined as online instruction that combines multimedia formats (text, video, audio, images) with activities that help the learner apply and receive feedback on their understanding.3,4 Whereas traditional […]
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The Benefits of Vision Screening as a Mandatory Component of a First-Year Optometry School Curriculum

Introduction There is consensus among healthcare professionals that their education is enhanced by early “hands-on” experience with patients. Students rate these experiences as a valuable introduction to their professional roles in clinical practice.1-5 This alternative model of health professional education includes didactic courses with simultaneous early exposure to direct patient care. It contrasts with the […]
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Diagnosis and Management of Residual Amblyopia in a Non-compliant Patient: a Teaching Case Report

Introduction Amblyopia, a prevalent neurodevelopmental visual disorder, carries a significant risk of serious bilateral visual impairment and disability later in life.1 The prevalence of amblyopia is estimated to be 1-3%2–4 of the population and the condition is the leading cause of uncorrectable vision loss in children and adults under the age of 60.5 Refractive correction, […]
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The Student Learning Objectives Initiative
in a Doctor of Optometry Degree Program:
a Report of Student and Faculty Perceptions

Background The concept of student learning outcomes, also known as student learning objectives (SLOs), behavioral objectives, learning goals, goal focusing, or relevance instruction, has been discussed in higher education for many decades.1-7 SLOs are short statements directing students’ attention to the salient points that the teacher wants them to master from lectures, reading assignments or […]
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Utilization of Technology in Optometric Education: Moving from Enhancement to Transformation

Introduction We live and work in a world of constantly changing technology. As optometric educators we are part of an industry that interfaces with emerging technologies including digital mobile devices and computer-simulated reality. Within this context — and knowing that our students are accustomed to 24-7 access to anything and everything using their mobile devices […]
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Effect of Room Illumination on Manifest Refraction

Background Visual acuity (VA) is the most frequently assessed visual function in the clinical setting. Optimal refractive correction and the subsequent VA is essential for quantifying sensory function, detecting and monitoring ocular disease affecting central vision, and conducting clinical research. However, research on lighting conditions and how they affect VA and refractive error has rarely […]
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Amiodarone Ocular Toxicity, Emphasizing Optic Neuropathy: a Teaching Case Report

Background Amiodarone is the most common antiarrhythmic drug prescribed for treatment of atrial fibrillation. Its efficacy has been challenged by its ubiquitous organ toxicity resulting in nearly 50% of long-term users discontinuing the drug.1 Ocular toxicity most commonly presents as corneal deposits referred to as whorl keratopathy or corneal verticillata, which occur in the majority […]
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The Use of OCT in Differential Diagnosis of Elevated Optic Discs

Background One of the challenges facing the ophthalmic care provider in clinical practice is the presentation of an elevated optic nerve head (ONH). The most critical initial assessment aims to differentiate true papilledema from pseudopapilledema due to the fundamentally different implication regarding appropriate care.1 Papilledema, one of the most common reasons for optic disc edema […]
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Electronic Health Records, Clinical Experiences and Interprofessional Student Perceptions

Background Interprofessional education (IPE) is defined as “when students from two or more professions learn about, from and with each other to enable effective collaboration and improve health outcomes.”1 The pedagogical implementation of IPE has steadily gained traction within the academic community in the past decade, markedly so since the Interprofessional Education Collaborative released its […]
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Bilateral Parieto-Occipital Cortex Infarcts and their Effects on the Visual Field: a Teaching Case Report

Background Cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs), also known as strokes, are the leading preventable cause of disability in nearly 130,000 people in the United States per year. Strokes lead to approximately one in 20 deaths.1,2 Due to their high prevalence, it is important to become familiar with strokes and their various consequences. The following case report involves […]
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Teaching Pupil Dilation: Faculty Perceptions Regarding Elevated Blood Pressure and Dilating Agents

Introduction To be considered comprehensive, an eye examination should include visualization of the fundus through a dilated pupil. To achieve maximal mydriasis for optimal visibility, a combination of 1% tropicamide (a muscarinic receptor antagonist) and 2.5% phenylephrine (an alpha-receptor agonist) is typically used.1 While adequate pupil dilation may be achieved with 1% tropicamide alone, some […]
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Faculty Perceptions of the Impact of Electronic Medical and Health Records in Optometric Education in the United States and Puerto Rico

Introduction In 2001, the Institute of Medicine, which was established by the National Academy of Sciences as an independent advisory organization, advocated for the extensive use of information technology that would “lead to the elimination of most handwritten clinical data by the end of the decade.”1 This information technology (digital records) became known as electronic […]
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Acquired Toxoplasmosis Manifesting as Granulomatous Panuveitis: a Teaching Case Report

Background This case report follows the diagnosis and management of a patient with unilateral granulomatous panuveitis including differential diagnosis, diagnostic lab testing and treatment. The case is an unusual presentation of uveitis, and it is a useful educational exercise to consider the differential diagnoses and potential treatment options. The intended audience is third- and fourth-year […]
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Teaching Ocular Imaging, Disease Diagnosis and Management Within a Work-Integrated Setting: a Novel Model Within an Optometric Education Program

Introduction Technological advancements in ocular imaging are rapidly redefining the way eye diseases such as glaucoma and macular degeneration are diagnosed and managed in optometric practice. In Australia, the scope of practice of optometrists has expanded with the increasing accessibility of advanced imaging technologies as well as therapeutic endorsement of more than 50% of the […]
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Ocular Chrysiasis: a Teaching Case Report

Background The following case report is meant to be used as a guide in teaching optometry students and residents. It is relevant to all levels of training. Ocular chrysiasis is a deposition of gold in ocular structures following chrysotherapy, which is the medical use of gold salts. Chrysotherapy was primarily used to treat infectious, rheumatoid […]
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Retinoschisis: a Teaching Case Report

Background Retinoschisis means “splitting of neurosensory retina.”1-3 In the various forms of retinoschisis, patients may present with or without symptoms. The condition can be unilateral or bilateral and it can be peripheral or central. Acquired retinoschisis and X-linked (juvenile) retinoschisis are the major subtypes mentioned in the literature. Senile, acquired, degenerative, and peripheral retinoschisis are […]
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Virtual Patient Instruction and Self-Assessment Accuracy in Optometry Students

Introduction Decision-making in a clinical context is defined as “making choices between alternatives in order to decide what procedures to do, to make a diagnosis, or to decide what treatments to prescribe.”1 We developed a virtual patient software to teach these skills to second-year optometry students at Aston University. This software was inspired by Pane […]
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Hypertensive Choroidopathy: a Teaching Case Report

Introduction Patients with hypertension often present with ocular findings of hypertensive retinopathy. In 1898, Marcus Gunn first described hypertensive retinopathy to include generalized and focal arteriolar narrowing, arteriovenous crossing changes, retinal hemorrhages, cotton wool spots and disc edema. Later, fundus findings in hypertensive choroidopathy would be described to include Siegrist streaks25 and Elschnig spots.26 Three […]
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Developing Military Cultural Competency
to Better Serve Those Who Have Served Us

Introduction The military culture is one of unique practices, traditions and beliefs that represent a shared unifying language with a distinct set of guiding principles.1 For many civilian healthcare providers without any prior military experience, immersion in this cross-cultural environment adds a layer of complexity and possible difficulty to the clinical exam that otherwise may […]
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Cognitive Strategies to Improve Patient Care
in Cross-Cultural Settings

Introduction Culturally appropriate patient care has been shown to result in positive health outcomes.1 Without culturally competent care — the ability to accept diversity and adapt to unconventional requests — cross-cultural experiences involving patients and healthcare providers can evoke emotional responses that can be detrimental to patients. Culturally competent care may be difficult to employ […]
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Communicating Educational Objectives
in an Optometry Course

  Background Educational context The purpose of this study is to investigate how to communicate written course objectives within the course Visual Optics so students can be informed effectively about what they should learn. This course is offered in the first year of the four-year optometry program at the Southern California College of Optometry at […]
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Choroidal Melanoma and Disclosing Bad News:
a Teaching Case Report

  Background Although choroidal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular tumor, the incidence is rare with approximately six out of one million individuals diagnosed annually or approximately 1,400 new cases in the United States each year.1,2 Choroidal melanoma typically arises in Caucasians with light-colored eyes and fair skin with a propensity to burn when […]
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Normotensive Glaucoma Follow-Up with Incidental Finding of Choroidal Neovascular Membrane: a Teaching Case Report

  Background Normotensive glaucoma is a progressive optic neuropathy that follows clinical patterns of primary open-angle glaucoma in the absence of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP).1 Patients with normotensive glaucoma are typically followed at regular intervals several times per year for clinical examination of the optic nerve and for monitoring of IOP, automated visual fields and […]
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Influence of Participation in an Elective Course in Enhancing Perceived Critical Thinking, Independent Learning and Residency Decision-Making

  Introduction The Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry defines optometrists as “independent primary health care professionals for the eye.”1 The scope of optometry has expanded over the past three decades. In an increasingly digital world with an aging population, optometrists should be prepared to adequately provide eye care to a wide variety of […]
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Vitamin B12 Deficiency Optic Neuropathy: a Teaching Case Report

  Background Vitamin B12 (also known as cobalamin) is an essential vitamin for neurological function. Vitamin B12 deficiency optic neuropathy is a rare complication of this deficiency that results in progressive, bilateral, painless vision loss that is often associated with reduced color vision and central or cecocentral scotomas. The following case report discusses the diagnosis […]
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Management of Intermittent Exotropia of the Divergence Excess Type: a Teaching Case Report

  Background Intermittent exotropia (IXT) is the most common form of childhood exotropia1, 2 with an incidence of 32.1 per 100,000 in children under 19 years of age.1 The strabismus is characterized by an exodeviation of one eye that is interspersed with periods of ocular alignment.3 Reliable measurement of the deviation is often hindered by […]
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Competency-based Assessment of Refractive Error Measurement in a Mozambique Optometry School

  Introduction The Mozambique Eyecare Project is a higher education partnership between the Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT), the Brien Holden Vision Institute (BHVI), the University of Ulster and Universidade Lúrio (UniLúrio), Nampula, for the development, implementation and evaluation of a model of optometry training at Unilúrio in Mozambique. The four-year optometry program was based […]
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The SIFD and the Three-Legged Stool

  Background The Summer Institute for Faculty Development (SIFD) is a biennial workshop hosted by the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry (ASCO).1 It is designed to assist faculty members’ transition into the academic culture by increasing their awareness and understanding of the tools and resources available to them. In 2006 the SIFD, aka […]
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Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis Signaled by Bilateral Optic Disc Edema and Unilateral Pre-retinal Hemorrhage: a Teaching Case Report

  Background Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a rare, life-threatening condition. It has no age predilection and its presentation may be acute, sub-acute or chronic.1 Variability in the clinical manifestation of this disease often leads to the misdiagnosis of other neurological conditions such as idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH).2 Notwithstanding, a significant portion of patients […]
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Student Performance and Perceptions Following Incorporation of Eyesi Indirect Simulators into the Optometric Curriculum

  Background Virtual reality patient simulators are an appealing tool in education programs for medical professionals. Simulators provide an opportunity for increased training in risk-free environments, which may result in better patient outcomes as trainees transition from the laboratory to actual clinical care. With respect to surgical simulators utilized in ophthalmological training, virtual patient simulators […]
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Concept Mapping as a Tool for Didactic Learning and Case Presentation in an Optometric Curriculum

  Introduction Integrating theory and practice has long been a goal and necessity of medical training. Particularly in the past two decades, medicine has experienced exponential growth in the biomedical knowledge expected of students. Thus, it has become important to develop more systematic methods to integrate acquired knowledge with the aim of better applying it […]
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Learning Environment: Students’ Perceptions Using DREEM Inventory at an Optometry Institute in Pakistan

  Introduction Educational environment refers to the whole range of components and activities within which learning happens. This includes faculty, teaching and learning methods, learning resources, monitoring and evaluation. Educational environment has been shown to directly affect students’ performance both at undergraduate and graduate levels.1 An educational environment that is not conducive to learning not […]
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Peripapillary Retinoschisis and Glaucoma Connection: a Teaching Case Report

  Background Retinoschisis involving the peripapillary and macular regions is well-documented in the literature. The condition is commonly associated with optic nerve head pits, optic nerve colobomas, X-linked macular schisis and high myopia. Less often cited in literature are cases of retinoschisis associated with glaucoma or enlarged optic nerve cupping in the absence of other […]
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Targeting Intraocular Pressure in Glaucoma: a Teaching Case Report

  Background Glaucoma is a range of conditions that causes a loss of retinal ganglion cell axons within the nerve fiber layer resulting in vision loss.1,2 Although many novel treatments for glaucoma are being investigated, the mainstay therapy is control and reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP).1,2 Upon diagnosis, the setting of an IOP target is […]
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Assessing Student Performance in Geometrical Optics Using Two Different Assessment Tools: Tablet and Paper

  Background Since the release of the first iPad in 2010, tablets have become increasingly prominent in educational settings. According to a 2015 survey by the Pearson Foundation, 51% of college students in the United States own a tablet and use it for academic purposes, while in 2011 only 7% owned a tablet.1,2 Another survey, […]
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Plateau Iris Syndrome and Acute Angle Closure Glaucoma: A Teaching Case Report

  Background Primary angle closure glaucoma is characterized by apposition of the peripheral iris to the trabecular meshwork as a result of abnormal size and position of anterior segment structures or posterior segment pressure forces that alter the anterior segment anatomy.1,2,3 The four most common causes of angle closure glaucoma are: pupillary block, plateau iris, […]
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Perceived Enhanced Clinical Readiness for Second-Year Optometry Interns

  Introduction Healthcare educators increasingly recognize the benefits of early, direct exposure to patient care,1,2 defined as authentic patient contact in a clinical setting that enhances learning.3 Benefits of early exposure to patient care include developing comfort with patients, developing efficient clinical skills, encouraging active learning, making learning more relevant, and reducing difficulty with transition […]
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Initial Evaluation of an Optometric Outreach Educational Program

  Background Experiential learning is key in the education of healthcare professionals.1 It is a significant and valued component in the education of third- and fourth-year optometry learners at the University of Waterloo School of Optometry and Vision Science (WOVS). As part of the clinical program, external geriatric and pediatric services are provided by optometrists […]
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The Effect on Knowledge and Attitude of an Interprofessional Education Curriculum for Optometry and Physician Assistant Students

Background The complexities of patient care have necessitated increased specialization within the U.S. healthcare system. This has created potential schisms in care as well as potential safety issues. Distinction among professionals has led to a lack of knowledge of the expertise of other health professionals and pre-conceptions and stereotyping that negatively affect collaborative practice. Pham […]
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A Pilot Study of Optometry Student Perceptions, Acceptance and Use of Podcasting

  Background “Lecture capture” is a process in which digital recordings of live lectures are shared with students. Its purpose is to increase engagement with lecture material and to increase student satisfaction.1 “Full” lecture capture includes video and audio,2,3 but it can be challenging to introduce because it requires suitable infrastructure such as cameras and […]
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Long-term Follow-up of Suspected Vaccine-Induced Papillitis: A Teaching Case Report

  Background Optic neuritis results when the optic nerve becomes inflamed. Two major clinical presentations of optic neuritis exist: typical demyelinating and atypical. Typical demyelinating optic neuritis is the most common presentation and includes the following features: acute monocular vision loss (which typically improves after two weeks), pain on eye movement, visual field defect and […]
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Hyperopia and Presbyopia: A Teaching Case Report

  Background Presbyopia is an age-related refractive condition that results from the normal decrease in amplitude of accommodation necessitating a prescription of plus for near vision.1 Presbyopia is a common condition in patients over age 40 that most optometrists in practice encounter daily. The techniques for determining the appropriate near prescription for a presbyope are […]
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A Test of a Blended Method for Teaching Medical Coding

  Introduction/Background According to the American Optometric Association, in 2013 more than half of the gross income in private optometric practices was derived from third-party insurance plans.1 This revenue could be further subdivided into almost an even split between payments from public plans, such as Medicare and Medicaid, and those from private insurance programs, including […]
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Planning Ahead for Corneal Epithelial Dystrophy: A Teaching Case Report

  Background Epithelial basement membrane dystrophy (EBMD) is the most common corneal dystrophy seen in clinical practice.1-6 Its appearance varies, which leads to frequent misdiagnosis, but presentation most often includes dot-like epithelial opacities, whorl-like fingerprint lines and circumscribed gray map-like patterns.4 It is for this reason that EBMD is also referred to as a map-dot-fingerprint […]
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Terrien’s Marginal Degeneration: A Teaching Case Report

  Background Terrien’s marginal degeneration (TMD) is a rare, slowly progressive, peripheral corneal ectasia of unknown etiology. The condition is most commonly seen in males past the age of 40. Initially, TMD presents as small, yellow-white, stromal opacities composed of lipids with some superficial vascularization, which begins superiorly and spreads circumferentially. With progression, a gutter […]
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Topiramate-Induced Acute Bilateral Angle Closure Glaucoma and Transient Myopia: A Teaching Case Report

Background Topiramate is a sulfamate-substituted monosaccharide used in the treatment of epilepsy and migraines.1 It also has an off-label use in the treatment of bipolar disorder, depression and as a weight reduction agent, among other uses.2 With the growing off-label use of this oral medication, it is important to raise awareness within the medical community […]
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The Implementation and Assessment of an Interprofessional Education Initiative at Salus University

Background Precipitated by the evolving healthcare environment over the past decades, interprofessional education (IPE) and interprofessional practice (IPP) have gained increased prominence in professional education.1,2 The Centre for the Advancement of Interprofessional Education defines IPE as occurring “when two or more professions learn with, from and about each other to improve collaboration and the quality […]
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Evaluation of Interprofessional Education and Collaboration in Optometry

Background Interprofessional collaboration (IPC) encourages integration of healthcare services and has shown positive impact on professional practice, quality of care and health outcomes.1,2,3 IPC between optometry and ophthalmology is well-established; however, collaboration between optometry and other health professions is not standard practice.4,5 With both the aging population and the chronic disease population increasing, the risk […]
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Shaping Student Attitudes Toward Healthcare Teams Through a Hybrid and an Online Interprofessional Education Course: Results from a Pilot Study

Introduction Interprofessional education (IPE) occurs when students from two or more professions learn about, from and with each other in a collaborative environment: “all together for better health.”1 The ultimate goal of IPE is to prepare healthcare professionals who can practice collaboratively as a member of a team to improve patient outcomes by providing integrated […]
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Optometry Students’ Knowledge-Based Performance within Interprofessional Education Courses

Background Introduction The World Health Organization has emphasized the importance of preparing the healthcare workforce for teamwork and collaboration between healthcare providers and between providers and patients.1 According to the Institute of Medicine (IOM), there are as many as 98,000 deaths annually due to medical errors in hospitals,2 including preventable errors caused by failure of […]
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Incorporating Interprofessional Education into a VA Optometric Residency

Background According to the World Health Organization, interprofessional education (IPE) occurs when students from two or more professions learn about, from and with each other to enable effective collaboration and improve health outcomes.1 A primary goal of IPE is to produce healthcare providers capable of providing team-based care that meets the health needs of an […]
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Pilot Assessment of Teaching Anterior Segment Evaluation to Develop Interprofessional Education Programs

Background In medically based practice, frustration and confusion can occur during communication between specialty services and more general or diverse services. In most of these instances, the generalist is trying to receive a consultation in his or her department or trying to refer a patient to a specialized service. It can be difficult for the […]
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