Traditional vs. Blended Learning of Pharmacology

Len V Hua, OD, PhD, FAAO
Denise Goodwin, OD, FAAO
Alfred Weiss


Blended learning integrates online learning modules with traditional in-classroom lectures. Little is known about the effectiveness of blended learning in optometric education. The goal of the study is to compare traditional vs. blended learning by optometry freshmen, focusing on the essentials of medical pharmacology. The results suggest a positive trend in understanding pharmacology with blended learning and warrant further implementation. Even with advanced technology, instructors still must know why, what and how educational technology can enhance learning. Further, instructors should start slow and be flexible to change.

Key Words:  optometry, pharmacology, online learning, blended learning, Moodle

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