Denise Goodwin, OD, FAAO
Len V. Hua, OD, PhD, FAAO
John R. Hayes, PhD
Blended learning combines online and face-to-face teaching. One-third of a refraction
course in the second year of optometry school was offered in a blended format.
We evaluated student understanding, preparation for laboratory sessions and satisfaction.
The final exam scores comparing online and in-class topics were not significantly
different from 2011 to 2012. No difference was noted in laboratory skills.
Students were satisfied with the online activities. Blended learning did not affect
learning or laboratory performance. However, students appreciated its flexibility and
ability to keep them engaged. Blended learning may be an effective way of delivering
Key Words: optometric education, blended learning, refraction